History of Mankind

The origin of human beings has been a debated issue in evolutionary biology over the last few decades.

Where did we come from?

Our evolutionary history is written into our genome?. The human genome looks the way it does because of all the genetic changes that have affected our ancestors.

Modern humans (Homo sapiens), the species? that we are, means ‘wise man’ in Latin. Our species is the only surviving species of the genus Homo but where we came from has been a topic of much debate.

A theory says that Modern humans originated in Africa within the past 200,000 years and evolved from their most likely recent common ancestor, Homo erectus, which means ‘upright man’ in Latin. Homo erectus is an extinct species of human that lived between 1.9 million and 135,000 years ago.

Historically, two key models have been put forward to explain the evolution? of Homo sapiens. These are the ‘out of Africa’ model and the ‘multi-regional’ model. The ‘out of Africa’ model is currently the most widely accepted model. It proposes that Homo sapiens evolved in Africa before migrating across the world.

Origin of modern humanity is a debatable issue but what is not debatable among scholars, anthropologists and sociologists is the various stages of human development that we can understand through historic and prehistoric periods.

History is the study of the past starting from the time period when the writing system was introduced and written records were maintained. Prehistory is the study of the past, even before writing was invented and written records were maintained. To deal with the massive spans of time in this period, archaeologists traditionally divide prehistory into three main periods: the Stone, Bronze, and Iron ages, named after the main technologies used at that time.

Prehistoric period –


Stage I –
Attacking and killing other individuals to snatch food or shelter.
Stage II –
Individuals combined into groups to attack and kill other group members to snatch food, shelter, place or women.
Stage III –
Groups combined into a larger geographic entity known as village, controlled by a village leader for looting wealth or to increase territory or merge another village boundary, by attacking and killing other villagers.

Historic period –


Stage IV –
A Cluster of villages and towns formed a king ruled ”State” which declared war and looted wealth, attacked & killed armies of other states or to increase territory of their geographies.
Stage V – 
Cluster of States formed a President or Dictator ruled Country, attacked and killed civilians and armies of other countries, in the name of ideology, political issues, race, economic conflicts, etc.

Let’s look at the Common characteristics of this evolution all through


  • The Size of Entity expanded geometrically
  • The Human Being of one Entity killed the Human Being of another Entity for some logical sounding reason. Within the Entity they existed rather peacefully in a structured system.
  • The scale of killing expanded geometrically although the frequency reduced.
  • The skill and technology to kill and win became more and more advanced and powerful, lesser and lesser dependent on physical muscle power.
  • The motive of Killing to save, expand and / or merge territory became an acceptable Norm of Society and was even glorified as patriotism and Bravery. The motive of Conflict was the same but the appearance became sophisticated.
  • There was a better and better structure / Mechanism to manage and achieve peace, Cooperation and prosperity within the Entity
  • Threat and attack from one Entity to other Entity hindered the peace and prosperity within both Entities
  • Every Stage of Evolution was inevitable and unstoppable

Extrapolating this evolution, it does sound natural, obvious, logical and unstoppable that this evolution shall and bound to proceed further to the next and last Step.

This last stage is EARTHIA

One Entity to govern the whole Earth

Puzzle for young generation and future generations

  • Kids of today are puzzled when they read History of Mankind full of killing. They ask a very basic question :–
    “Why were innocent Human beings killing innocent Human beings in hundreds, thousands and even in lakhs in the process of glorifying a king of one Kingdom attacking other kingdoms without any reason except just to prove his superiority or just to satisfy his mad whim”
  • We have no answer!!!!
  • Kids of tomorrow will also get puzzled when they read History.
    “Why were innocent Human beings killing innocent Human beings in thousands and even lakhs in the process of Countries fighting each other for petty issues like Border dispute or for religious hatred.
  • We will have no answer!!!!

This evolution and history of mankind has thrown open questions and puzzles for the coming generation. We are obliged to provide logical sustainable and solid answers to these Historical blunders as well to find permanent solutions.